Shillah Mwaniga Mwavua holds Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology and Sociology from the University of Nairobi and Diploma in Clinical Medicine and Surgery from the Kenya Medical Training College. She is a HIV/AIDS Program Officer in Langata sub county, Nairobi. She has authored several papers on reproductive health issues and diabetes which has been presented in conferences in Madrid, Melbourne, Johannesburg and Vancouver. Her work on diabetes has been published in the reputable BMC Research Notes journal.
Background: Peripheral public health facilities remain the most frequented by the majority of the population in Kenya; yet remain sub-optimally equipped and not optimized for non-communicable diseases care.rnrnDesign & Methodology: We undertook a descriptive, cross sectional study among ambulatory Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus clients, attending Kenyatta National Referral Hospital (KNH) and Thika District Hospital (TDH) in Central Kenya. Systematic random sampling was used. HbA1c was assessed for glycemic control and the following, as markers of quality of care: Direct client costs, clinic appointment interval and test, affordability and satisfaction with care.rnrnResults: We enrolled 200 clients, (Kenyatta National Hospital 120; Thika District Hospital 80); Majority of the patients 66.5% were females, the mean age was 57.8 years and 58% of the patients had basic primary education. 67.5% had diabetes for less than 10 years and 40% were on insulin therapy. The proportion (95% CI) with good glycemic was 17% (12.0-22.5 respectively) in the two facilities [Kenyatta National Hospital 18.3% (11.5-25.6); Thika District Hospital 15% (CI 7.4-23.7); P=0.539]. However, in Thika District Hospital clients were more likely to have a clinic driven routine urinalysis and weight, they were accorded shorter clinic appointment intervals; incurred half to three quarter lower direct costs and reported greater affordability and satisfactions with care.rnrnConclusion: In conclusion we demonstrate that in Thika district hospital glycemic control and diabetic care is suboptimal but comparable to that of Kenyatta National Referral Hospital. Opportunities for improvement of care abound at peripheral health facilities.
Martin Rinaldi-Tosi is working as a Profesor at National University of Río Negro, Argentina.rnHe won many awards and recognitions for his work. His international experience includes various programs, contributions and participation in different countries for diverse fields of study. His research interests reflect in his wide range of publications in various national and international journals. He is the Editorial Board Member and reviewer of scientific journals
Xanthomonas arborícola juglandis is the main causative microorganism of brown apical necrosis in walnuts (Juglans regia L.), in addition to secondary fungal pathogens such as Fusarium and Alternaria species. This pathology is responsible of premature drop fruit and economic losses of over 70% were detected in 2012 in Rio Negro valley. This study aims to develop methods that allow early diagnosis anticipate infection by microorganisms and act quickly. For this, gold nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction using tetrachloroauric acid and sodium citrate, and functionalized with chitosan. Nanoparticles (NPs Au-CH) were subsequently characterized by several techniques. The results of UV-visible spectroscopy tests showed a characteristic band at 530 nm; studies of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed homogeneous and spherical morphology and particles size of 15±5 nm; energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) assay showed a characteristic spectrum of 2 keV and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) with characteristic peaks between 37° and 38°. Finally, Xanthomonas arboricola antibodies were immobilized on the NPs Au-CH surface using glutaraldehyde, obtaining as result a nanostructured platform for the development of an immunosensor for early detection of this microorganism. We concluded that the nanostructured platform can be used to attach different specific biomolecules that recognize microorganisms responsible for apical necrosis and thus make early detection before physical manifestation of the symptomatology occur.